Colour: The heartwood is white or yellowish-white, while the sapwood is white, sometimes greenish; there are no clear boundaries between the heartwood and sapwood. Pattern: plain. Texture: slightly coarse to coarse. Fibre Direction: Straight to blend. Gloss: smooth surface. Hardness: somewhat soft.
Vessels/Pore: mixed, mainly radial multiple consisting of 2-4 pores, sometimes up to 5, the diameter is relatively small to quite large, the frequency is rare to quite rare, tylosis is expected, and the perforation plane is simple. Parenchyma: Usually paratracheal sheath type, some tend to be wing-shaped, rarely confluent—fingers: narrow to moderately broad, rarely located, relatively short in size.
Properties and Uses:
Density: the lowest average is 0.42, and the highest is 0.61 out of 5 species. Durability Class: IV-V, Solidity Class: III (II-IV). Use: light construction materials, carpentry wood, wrapping, handicrafts, household furniture, decorative veneer, flooring, musical instruments, lighters, bodies of trains and ships/boats. This type of wood is also suitable for making pulp.
Gmelina wood has bright business prospects. The increasing demand for industrial wood makes timber producers look to the potential of plants with fast growth and good wood quality. Whilst the market is increasing, the wood supply was low due to the low production of sengon wood because gall rust disease attacked several centres of sengon wood production. One woody plant with the potential for fast growth is Gmelina (Gmelina Arborea Roxb).
The prospect of Gmelina’s cultivation is getting brighter because of the increasing demand for industrial wood. As a raw material for industrial wood, Gmelina wood is often used as pulp, plywood, light construction materials, interior accessories, household furniture, crafts, and souvenirs. In addition to the wood, we can also use some parts of the plant in traditional medicine. At the same time, the leaves can be used for animal feed.
As a potential commodity, Gmelina wood is widely supplied to various regions in Indonesia. In 2009, the Gmelina wood’s selling price was around 50-100 million per hectare, depending on the diameter of the wood and the spacing. Not only to supply the domestic market, but the foreign market is also wide open—for example, the Japanese market. In Japan, Gmelina wood is processed using high technology to produce souvenirs, interior accessories, and household furniture.